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Educate to Hate: the use of education in the creation of antagonistic national identities in India and Pakistan

Lall, Marie-Carine (2008) Educate to Hate: the use of education in the creation of antagonistic national identities in India and Pakistan. Compare: A Journal of Comparative Education, 38 (1). pp. 103-119. ISSN 0305-7925

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Abstract

In states that are diverse, issues of national identity formation and who belongs and how they belong can, and often does, change over time. The article analyses how education was used as a tool to artificially create antagonistic national identities based on religious and ethnic definitions of who was Indian or Pakistani. It focuses in particular on how in India the BJP led government (1998-2004) and in Pakistan the government under General Zia-ul-Haq (1977-1988) rewrote the curriculum and changed the text book content in order to create the "other" in order to suit their ideology and the politics of the day. Drawing on the original textbooks, extensive fieldwork interviews in both countries and on recent literature, the paper proposes the argument that fundamentalisation in general, and the fundamentalisation of textbooks in particular are state-controlled mechanisms through which to control society. They can also have serious international consequences as two antagonistic national identities oppose each other's definition of history and self.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Journal article based on three years of original fieldwork in India and Pakistan. This is an electronic version of an article published in Lall, Marie-Carine (2008) Educate to Hate: the use of education in the creation of antagonistic national identities in India and Pakistan. Compare: A Journal of Comparative Education, 38 (1). pp. 103-119. Compare: A Journal of Comparative Education is available online at: http://www.informaworld.com/10.1080/03057920701467834
Controlled Keywords: India , Pakistan , Public policy analysis
Divisions: IOE Departments > Departments > International and Lifelong Education
IOE Departments > Departments > Humanities and Social Sciences
Depositing User: IOE Repository Editor (2)
Date Deposited: 07 May 2010 14:28
Last Modified: 06 Jan 2014 14:58
URI: http://eprints.ioe.ac.uk/id/eprint/4020
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